Typesetting Math in Texts
21 Nov 2015Basic math
Whenever you typeset mathematical notation, it needs to have “Math” style. For example: If is an integer, then is odd.
Superscripts and subscripts are created using the characters ^
and _
,
respectively: and . It is fine to have both on a single
letter: .
If the superscript [or subscript] is more than a single character, enclose the superscript in curly braces: .
Greek letters are typed using commands such as \gamma
( and
\Gamma
().
Named mathematics operators are usually typeset in roman. Most of the standards are already available. Some examples: , , and .
Displayed equations
When an equation becomes too large to run inline, you display it in a “Math” paragraph by itself.
The \begin{aligned}...\end{aligned}
environment is superb for lining up
equations.
To insert ordinary text inside of mathematics mode, use \text
:
This is the time I’ve asked for my money back.
The \begin{cases}...\end{cases}
environment is perfect for defining functions
piecewise:
Relations and operations

Equalitylike: , , , , , , , .

Order: , , , , , , .

Arrows: , , , , , .

Set stuff: , , . Use
\notin
rather than\not\in
. , , . 
Arithmetic: , , , , , , .

Mod: As a binary operation, use
\bmod
: . As a relation use\mod
,\pmod
, or\pod
: 
Calculus: , .
Use the right dots
Do not type three periods; instead use \cdots
between operations and \ldots
in lists: and .
Built up structures

Fractions: , .

Binomial coefficients: .

Sums and products. Do not use
\Sigma
and\Pi
. 
Integrals:
The extra bit of space before the term is created with the
\,
command. 
Limits:
Also .

Radicals: , , .

Matrices:
A big matrix:
Delimiters

Parentheses and square brackets are easy: , .

For curly braces use
\{
and\}
: . 
Absolute value: , .

Floor and ceiling: .

To make delimiters grow so they are properly sized to contain their arguments, use
\left
and\right
:Occasionally, it is useful to coerce a larger sized delimiters than
\left
/\right
produce. Look at the two sides of this equation:I think the right is better. Use
\bigl
,\Bigl
,\biggl
, and the matching\bigr
, etc. 
Underbraces:
Styled and decorated letters

Primes: , .

Hats: , , , .

Vectors are often set in bold: .

Calligraphic letters (for sets of sets): .

Blackboard bold for number systems: .
The text above is based on a paper by Edward R. Scheinerman^{1}.
A few more examples from mathTeX tutorial^{2}.
Solution for quadratic:
Definition of derivative:
Continued fraction:
Demonstrating \left\{…\right.
and accents.
Overbrace and underbrace:
Illustrating array:
See Wikibook on LaTeX for more examples.